[Fis] 回复: Hello IS4SI?

钟义信 zyx at bupt.edu.cn
Thu Mar 5 07:30:47 CET 2020

Dear Pedro and All,

You are welcome to join in the discussion.

Best regards,

Prof. Zhong Y. X.
Center for Intelligence Science Research
Beijing University of Posts & Telecom





------------------ 原始邮件 ------------------
发件人: "Pedro"<pcmarijuan.iacs at aragon.es>;
发送时间: 2020年3月4日(星期三) 晚上7:33
收件人: "fis"<fis at listas.unizar.es>; 

主题: [Fis] Hello IS4SI?



Dear         List Colleagues,
Let me         remind the desirable seasonal contribution of IS4SI Board         members to the vitality of this list. It is not so difficult:         any comments on relevant papers or books recently read, any         discussion on the problems of the own research, or any         reflection on the amazing evolution of our societies... does         still exist the aspiration of being a thought-collective?  Below         I reproduce a very interesting message from Yixin, say his         "seasonal contribution" to this winter. It passed undiscussed         except by Gordana and by Joseph in his Summary. Part of the         problem was that it was sent as an attachment. In any case I         think it deserves further discussion as it implies a very         holistic view on information (that one can share or not) very         useful for our common foundational info purposes. 
Best         wishes
Dear Joseph, Dear           Pedro, Dear All,
The discussions on           the           topics of information, disinformation and misinformation have           been carried on           for a couple of weeks from which I learnt a lot. Let me also           share some of my           views with friends and colleagues within our society, IS4SI.
1,             Why Is The Discussion Important?
The current           discussion           is important simply because of the fact that, together with           matter and energy,           information is the most valuable resource for human society as           well as for the           living world. Particularly, in the stage of information age,           the role           information plays is even more fundamental. As to the members           of International           Society for the Study of Information, we are bearing on the           special responsibility           for making as clear as possible the concepts, properties,           utilities, risks, and           policies related to information. 
2,             What Is Information On Earth Then?
For making clear           the           policies related to information, the first thing we should do           (and also cannot           be avoided) is to precisely understand what information is –           the definition of           information. It IS, no doubt, the very foundation for           distinguishing the           concepts of information, disinformation, misinformation, and           etc. Shannon, Wiener,           Ashby, Bateson and many others have made contributions to the           issue, the           definition of information. Negative entropy, variety, and           difference that make           difference are the mutually linked, and yet different,           answers.       
But, all the           ‘definitions’           mentioned above have certain demerits. Firstly, for example,           the concept of entropy           in Shannon Information Theory and Wiener’s Cybernetics is           based on the           probability theory whereas information is not limited to           statistical category. Secondly,           the concept of ‘variety’ seems much too simple and it cannot           distinguish two           events having same number of elements and different weights           associated to each           of the elements. Thirdly, the concept of ‘difference that make           difference’ is           also not perfect because of the fact that ‘no difference’ does           not mean ‘no           information’. As a matter of fact, ‘no difference’ itself does           give information. To my           understanding,           there have been two categories of information, rather than           one, existed and           related to each other in the real world.       
The first category           of           information is the one produced and presented from all things           in the real world,           which may suitably be termed ontological             information(or object             information)           and the second category is the one perceived and utilized by           humans, which may           accordingly be termed epistemological             information(or subject             information).           Detailed explanations concerning these concepts can be found           below in section           3, or from the book <Principles of Information Science>           (Yixin Zhong, BUPT           Press, 1988, 1st edition; 1996, 2nd           edition; 2002, 3rd           edition; 2005, 4th edition; and 2013, 5th           edition; all in           Chinese). Up to now,           unfortunately, people have paid little attentions to the           understanding of the two           categories of information and the mutual relation between           them. Some concerned           only with the first category while some others with the           second. More often,           people just use the same term of ‘information’ to referred to           the two. This           makes the concept of information extremely chaotic. This is           really the root           producing variety of the misconceptions related to           information.       
3,             How To Define Different Categories of Information?
The definitions of           the           two category of information can briefly be given as follows.
       The           ontological information         of any object(including the living and non-living thins)is the         object’s formal           state and the pattern of the state varying that are         produced and presented         by the objects in the real world.

The           epistemological information         perceived by any subject about any object consists of three         components: (1)the           syntactic information which is the one perceived by the         subject directly         from the object’s ontological information, (2) the pragmatic           information         which is the utility of the object’s ontological information         towards the         subject’s goal, and (3) the semantic information which         is the meaning         that the subject understand about the object and which is         jointly defined by         (1) and (2) through the mapping of the Cartesian product of         syntactic and         pragmatic information into the space of semantic information and         then naming it.       

The key words in           the           definition of ontological information are “the formal state             and the pattern             of the state varying”, neither “negative entropy”,           “variety”, nor “difference           that make difference”. In fact, when someone received a piece           of (ontological) information           about a thing, this means that the person knew the thing’s             formal state and             the pattern of the state varying. It is very clear           that the             concept of information               in Shannon Theory             is a special case of epistemological information having only             the syntactic             information and completely ignoring both the pragmatic and             the semantic             information. Yet, Shannon information is practically           useful because it meets           the needs of communication engineering – whenever there is           message appeared at           the sending terminal of the communication system, just           transmit it without           asking what meaning and value embedded in the message, as long           as there is           sufficient channel capacity.        
4,             How To Classify and Handle the Various Kinds of Information?
According           to the definitions of ontological information, epistemological           information and           the information in Shannon Theory stated above, it is           reasonable to have the           following points.
(1)           Ontological             Information: If the term           of information is referred to the one only related to objects           themselves,           either living things or non-living things, without touching           the processes of           human perception and any processing, it is the concept of           ontological           information. 
(2)           Epistemological             Information: If the           term of information is referred to the one only related to the           results of perception           and processing, either by humans, living things or machines,           it is the           epistemological information.
(3)           Shannon Information:           If the term of           information is referred to the one only related to           communication process, it is           then the Shannon information.
(4)           Disinformation: It           is a kind of           epistemological information produced by someone who is with           immoral goal (its           pragmatic information is negative to human society).
(5)           Misinformation: It           is also a kind of           epistemological information produced by someone who may not be           with immoral           goal but have made mistakes in operation.
(6)           It is almost impossible           to classify           the various kinds of information mentioned above merely by           analyzing their           formal structures (syntactic information). As mentioned above,           the major           differences among normal epistemological information,           disinformation, and           misinformation lie on the pragmatic information.
(7)           The technology most           suitable for           handling the disinformation and misinformation is artificial           intelligence (AI)           based on the natural language understanding (NLU). However,           the current state of           the art of NLU in AI is still in its stage of infancy due to           the fact that the           ‘information concept’ applied in AI is limited to Shannon           Theory.
(8)           The Better solution           for dealing with           disinformation must rely on the power of advanced artificial           intelligence that           we have been dealing with for many years and have made good           progress (See           <Principles of Advanced Artificial Intelligence> by           Yixin Zhong, Science           Press, 2014, in Chinese)
(9)           The Ultimate Solution           for           successfully dealing with such kind of problem like           disinformation would rely           heavily on the collectively human efforts worldwide in the           fields of honesty,           responsibility, ethics, and morality. 
Best           wishes,
Yixin           Zhong, 2020-01-24, Beijing, China

     --  ------------------------------------------------- Pedro C. Marijuán Grupo de Bioinformación / Bioinformation Group pcmarijuan.iacs at aragon.es http://sites.google.com/site/pedrocmarijuan/ -------------------------------------------------    
  	        		Libre de virus. www.avast.com
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