[Fis] Biological computation session - kickoff text

Andrei Igamberdiev a_igamberdiev at hotmail.com
Mon Jun 13 17:36:59 CEST 2022

Dear Colleagues,

here is the text to start the session on natural computation devoted to Efim Liberman (1925-2011).

We look forward for discussing this important topic. It became the basis of the special issue of the journal BioSystems:


With best regards,

Nikita Shklovskiy-Kordi and Andrei Igamberdiev

Natural computation (Biological computation)

Following the pioneering works of Efim A. Liberman (1972, 1979), Koichiro Matsuno (1995), and Michael Conrad (1999), it became apparent that computability is generated internally in evolving biological systems. While quantum computation in human technology is still in early stages and does not go beyond the simplest realizations, it develops in biological systems in a complex way starting from the origin of life to the sophistication of enzymes’ work. A thorough search of the appropriate conceptual tools and mathematical language is needed, so that it will help theoretical biologists to provide new insights on the apparent goal-directedness, biological complexity, and human consciousness—it is an important task for the future. The biological computation concept became a basis of the powerful scientific paradigm that is currently acquiring new important developments.

Professor Efim A. Liberman (1925-2011) pioneered the paradigm of biological computation and developed the concepts of the molecular cell computer and the computational operation of neuron. He published several important papers in BioSystems from 1979 to 1996, in close collaboration with the editor-in-chief Michael Conrad. His concept of biological cell as a molecular computer was published in 1972 (Liberman, 1972) followed by the series of papers where he developed this concept in more detail and made further advancement.
Efim Liberman suggested the existence of a quantum computing system of life based on an estimate of the proximity to the minimum possible of the energy spend by living organisms on the calculations necessary to control macroscopic bodies with many degrees of freedom in real time, as well as on the calculations that ensure the existence of our consciousness.
Liberman gave these quantum computing systems the names - "quantum molecular regulator" - QMR and - "extreme quantum regulator" - EQR.

Liberman proposed the available for experimental verification connection between the "molecular cell computer" - MCC and the quantum computer system of the cell, in the work of enzymes and ion channels of a living cell, functioning as input devices for transmitting information from the MСС to quantum regulators, and the cytoskeleton as a computing environment for quantum calculations. The implementation of these experiments and the search for suitable conceptual tools and mathematical language are needed to help theoretical biologists take a fresh look at the apparent feasibility or teleonomic basis of living systems, the development of biological complexity, and the basis of human consciousness.

The virtual special issue of BioSystems “Fundamental principles of biological computation: From molecular computing to biological complexity” commemorates the first publication of Efim Liberman on biological computation at its 50th anniversary. It was edited by Nikita Shklovskiy-Kordi, Koichiro Matsuno, Pedro Marijuan and Andrei Igamberdiev. The webpage of this special issue is:


Some papers of this issue have free access, and for other papers, you can send a request to the editors to receive a copy. The biographical essay of Efim Liberman “On the way to a new science” (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0303264722000399) represents an autobiographic courageous creative story of life in science. Efim Liberman presented in this essay not only the story of his life but also his thoughts about the role of science and its future development and unification, with the ultimate goal to unite and harmonize our understanding of life and nature. Nikita Shklovskiy-Kordi and Andrei (Abir) igamberdiev review the contributions of Liberman in understanding the mechanisms of intracellular processing of information (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0303264722000454).  It can be considered as an overview of Liberman’s efforts to create an integrative theory of natural computation that aims to unite biology, physics and mathematics, which he called Chaimatics.

In other papers of the issue, different aspects of biological computations are discussed including Physical foundations of biology; Quantum computation in biological organization; Molecular recognition; Cellular control; Neuromolecular computing; Molecular computing processes; Self-organizing and self-replicating systems; Computational principles in biological development; Origins and evolution of the genetic mechanism; Fundamental nature of biological information processing.

Nikita Sklovskiy-Kordi and Andrei Igamberdiev
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