[Fis] "Making Music Together"; fyi, L.

Loet Leydesdorff loet at leydesdorff.net
Mon Oct 19 09:25:46 CEST 2020

  Mark W. Johnson and Loet Leydesdorff

Redundancies in the Communication of Music:

An operationalization of Schutz’s “Making Music Together"

Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 1-17 doi: 
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/sres.2738 (Open Access)

We elaborate Alfred Schutz’s theory of musical communication 
empirically. Our technique for analysing musical communication aligns 
Schutz’s sociological theory with the mathematics of anticipatory 
systems. Music, we argue, can be considered as an anticipatory system 
which articulates through its diachronic unfolding, fundamental 
symmetries which can be traced back to its initial moments. Following 
Bohm and Dubois we argue that these symmetries are present in fractal 
structures which gradually increase in definition as the music 
progresses. Critically, we focus on the role of redundancy in this 
process of providing increasing definition.

By analysing the entropy of musical data—Bach’s Sinfonia no. 9—we show 
how graphs of relative entropies can be produced from which a fractal is 
constructed. In arguing that coherence in music can be established 
through the alignment of self-similar patterns, the connection between 
Dubois’ anticipatory systems and Schutz’s characterisation of the 
dimensions of musical communication shows how redundancy underlies 
musical coherence.

** apologies for cross-postings

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